The three auxiliary verbs in English are be, do, and have.
Be is used with a verb~ing to make continuous forms. All continuous sentences need the auxiliary verb, be.
- The man is educating us with his experience and wisdom. (present continuous)
- She was relying too much on her parents' money when she started university. (past continuous)
- I have been saving my photos in this album. (present perfect continuous)
- He will be contributing by helping to make dinner. (future continuous)
- The lights are off in their house. They must be sleeping. (infinitive continuous)
Be is also used with past participles to make passive sentences.
- She is being educated by a wonderful teacher. (present continuous passive)
- The body was preserved by special medical techniques. (past simple passive)
- The house has been destroyed. (present perfect passive)
- My car will be repaired this weekend. (future passive)
- Your homework needs to be done before class. (infinitive passive)
Do, does, or did are used in the present or past simple tenses. Generally, they are used mainly in questions and negative sentences.
- Where did you grow up? (question)
- They don't do that in my country.(negative)
- Does he understand? (question)
- She didn't come to school yesterday. (negative)
Do, does, or did are also used to express emphasis.
- I usually don't care much about celebrities, but I do follow Brad Pitt.
- She said I didn't eat breakfast, but I did eat breakfast.
- "Why didn't you come to school yesterday?" "I did come to school!"
- "I thought he didn't eat meat." "He does eat meat!"
Have is used with past participles to make perfect verb forms.
- I haven't seen that film yet. (present perfect simple)
- She hadn't woken up when I called. (past perfect simple)
- When you get home, I will have already cooked dinner. (future perfect simple)
Have or have got can be used for present possession or obligation. Notice the differences:
- Do you have a car? Yes, I do. or No, I don't.
- Have you got a car? Yes, I have. or No, I haven't.
- Does he have to leave? Yes, he does. or No, he doesn't.
- Has he got to leave? Yes, he has. or No, he hasn't.
- Doesn't she have a brother? Yes, she does. or No, she doesn't.
- Hasn't she got a brother? Yes, she has. or No, she hasn't.
These are both possible only in the present tenses. For other tenses, only use have for possession or obligation.
- I had a dog when I was young. (past possession)
- She will have a job next year. (future possession)
- We have had this teacher for a long time. (present perfect possession)
- They would like to have a vacation home for when they are retired. (infinitive possession)
- You had to be here early. (past obligation)
- They will have to study harder. (future obligation)
- I have had to take the bus to school in the last two months. (present perfect obligation)
Have is used instead of have got in many phrases and expressions.
- have breakfast, lunch, dinner, etc.
- have a great / terrible time
- have a shower / bath
- have fun
- have a party
- have a word with you
Other uses of auxiliary verbs in English:
- It's hot, isn't it?
- You like hot chocolate, don't you?
- He came yesterday, didn't he?
- You won't do that, will you?
- You've been here a long time, haven't you?
- We aren't studying reading today, are we?
- "Are you from Japan?" "Yes, I am."
- "Did they have a good time?" "Yes, they did."
- "Have you been here long?" "No, I haven't."
- "Does she understand?" "No, she doesn't."
- "I have a very large family." "You do?" or "Do you?"
- "She doesn't have to worry about money." "She doesn't?" or "Doesn't she?"
- "He didn't eat dinner last night." "He didn't?" or "Didn't he?"
- "They won't be here next week." "They won't?" or "Won't they?"
- "I have been in Canada for one year." "You have?" or "Have you?"
Open the exercise to begin the activity. Follow the instructions in the document.